Table of Contents

It refers to the physical components of a computer. These are the primary electronic devices used to build up the computer.

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Types of Hardware

  1. Monitor:


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A monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises the visual display, circuitry Casing and power supply.

There are three types of monitors:

  1. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
  2. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
  3. LED (Light Emitting Diode)
  4. Keyboard:


A keyboard is a type-writer style device which uses and arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches………

Keyboard keys (buttons) typically have a set of characters engraved or printed on them, and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol.

Types of Keyboards:

  1. Mechanical Keyboard
  2. Membrane Keyboard
  3. Wireless Keyboard
  4. Mouse:

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 A mouse is a small hardware input device used by hand. It controls the movement of the cursor on the computer screen and allows users to move and select folders, text, files and icons on a computer. It is an object which needs to put on a hard flat surface to use. When the users move the mouse, the cursor moves in the same direction on the display screen.

Normally, there are three types of mouse:

1  PS/2 Mouse (Personal System/2): It is also referred to as the mouse port or keyboard part was developed by IBM. It is used to connect a computer mouse or keyboard to an IBM compatible computer. The PS/2 port is a mini DIN plug that contains six pins and is still sometimes found on all IBM compatible Computers.

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  1. USB Mouse (Universal Serial Bus): A USB mouse attaches to your USB port. For a wired option, a card runs from the mouse across your desk to your computer to plug in. A USB computer mouse is much easier to install. It uses radio frequency (RF) technology paired with a Nano/USB receiver/ RF transmitter in order to connect to your computer and input data.

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  1. CPU:

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A Central processing unit also called a central processor main processor or just processor is the electronic circuitry within a computer that executes instructions that make up a computer program. CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. It performs all the data processing operations. It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.

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CPU itself has following three components:

Memory or Storage Unit

Control Unit

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

The major types of CPU are classified as single-core, dual-core, Quad-core, Hexca core, Octa core and Deca core processor are built in different architecture like 64 bit and 32 bit with maximum speed and Flexible capacity.

  1. Mother Board:

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The mother board is the backbone that ties the computer’s components together at one spot and allows them to talk to each other. Without it, none of the computer pieces, such as the CPU, CPU or hard drive could interact Total motherboard functionality is necessary for a computer to work well.

  1. RAM (Random Access Memory):

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Computer Memory or random-access memory (RAM) is your system’s short-term data storage it stores the information your computer is actively using so that it can be accessed quickly RAM can be of – 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB etc. for normal work we use 4 GB RAM and for Graphical work we use 16 GB RAM.

Types of RAMS:

Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

Static RAM (SRAM)

  1. DRAM ( Dynamic Random Access Memory) : It is a type of semiconductor memory that is typically used for the data or program code needed by a computer processor to function. A DRAM storage cell is dynamic meaning that it needs to be refreshed or given a new electronic charge every few milliseconds to compensate for charge leaks from the capacitor.
  2. SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) : It is a type of random access memory that uses latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit. SRAM is volatile memory data is lost when power is removed. The term static differentiates SRAM from DRAM (dynamic random access memory) which must be periodically refreshed. SRAM is faster and more expensive than DRAM, it is typically used for the cache and internal registers of a CPU while DRAM is used for a computer’s main memory.

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)

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  1. ROM (Read Only Memory) :

It is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be electronically modified after the manufacture of the memory device. ROM stores the data permanently & when the power is off data remains there. Rom is useful for starting software that is rarely changed during the life of the system also known as firmware. ROM in hardware language is also known as BIOS (Basic Input/ Output System).

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At present, there are three types of ROM :

  • PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)
  • EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)
  • EEPROM ( Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)
  1. SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) :

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 It is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently like other power supplies an SMPS transfers from AC Current to DC Current because our computer DC Current to work.

  1. Hard Disk :

Hard disk a magnetic storage medium for a micro computer. Hard disks are flat circular plates made of aluminium or glass and coated with a magnetic material. Hard disks for personal computers can store up to several gigabytes of information Data are stored on their surfaces in concentric tracks. Data is stored permanently here and it is stored in memory till it is not deleted Hard disk can be of 2 types –   

Internal and External

SATA Hard Disk : It is serial advance technology attachment is the default interface for most desktop  & laptop hard drives.

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SSD Hard Disk : It is a Solid State Drive. It is a non-Volatile storage device in which there is one  microchip. Data is stored in this chip. This hard disk is very fast & it is Costly as well.

Set of solid state drives (SSD)


  1. Fan :

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 When we work on a computer for longer time it becomes very hot. All its parts become hot so to keep it cool we use a fan which throws all the heat outside & helps it to cool down.

The fan is attached to Microprocessor throws all the heat & keeps computer cool. Below the Fan & Micro Processor there is a thermal paste that keeps processor cool at extended limit.


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Anil Computers

Anil Computers

Best computer Institute in Udaipur


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